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1.5 Revision of quality standards and recommendations for the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and IQAA

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WP1 | Task 1.5

Preparation of report with revision of quality standards and recommendations for MESRK and IQAA

 

 

KAZDUAL – Implementing dual system in Kazakhstan (618835-EPP-1-2020-1-KZ-EPPKA2-CBHE-SP)

 

15.01.2021 – 14.01.2024

 

 

Project Coordinator: Laura Khassenova (SKSU)

Prepared by: ACQUIN

Delivery date: M8 – August 2021

 

 

 

Dissemination Level

 

PU

Public

 

PP

Restricted to other programme participants (including Commis- sion services and projects reviewers)

 

CO

Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including EACEA and Commission services and projects reviewers)

x

Summary

The current report refers to T1.5 of WP1 aiming at mapping quality tools cur- rently in use in European dual (professional) higher education in comparison to Kazakhstan. Based on the online workshop organised by ACQUIN on 14-15 June 2021, it serves as a report for Independent Agency for Quality Assurance in Edu- cation (IQAA) and Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakh- stan (MESRK) with quality standards recommendations for dual professional ed- ucation in Kazakhstan.

The European Commission’s support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the content, which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

 

Table of contents

  1. Introduction....................................................................................................................... 3
    1. 3
    1. note................................................................................................................. 3
    2. of progress & assumptions........................................................................................ 4
  1. Internal & external quality tools: state of play in Europe and Kazakhstan............................. 4
    1. of play in Europe.............................................................................................................. 5
    2. of play in Germany........................................................................................................... 6
    3. of play in Kazakhstan........................................................................................................ 7
    1. ............................................................................................................................ 9
  1. 1st Assessment workshop organised by ACQUIN................................................................. 9
    1. of dual education in Kazakhstan........................................................................ 12
    2. of external assessment standards in Kazakhstan..................................................... 13
    3. of the European standards in Kazakhstan.............................................................. 14
    4. standards................................................................................................................ 15
    1. of improvement and necessary changes......................................................................... 15
  1. Conclusions and recommendations................................................................................... 16
    1. to MESKR................................................................................................... 17
    2. to IQAA..................................................................................................... 17
  2. References...................................................................................................................... 19
  3. Annexes.......................................................................................................................... 20
    1. Research................................................................................................................... 20
    1. Research........................................................................................................................ 20
    1. of European standards in Kazakh HEIs (Feedback from KAZDUAL HEIs).................. 21
 

 

  1. Introduction

 

Since 2015, Kazakhstan has been developing a roadmap for the development of dual education mainly driven by the National Chamber of Entrepreneurs of the Republic of Kazakhstan “Atameken”. The on- going reform of Kazakh system of higher education both structurally and institutionally, aims at in- creasing its attractiveness and competitiveness. On July 4, 2018, the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Amendments and Additions to Some Legislative Acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Enhancing the Academic and Administrative Independence of Universities” was adopted, which provides for up- dating the system of higher education management, regulating the activities of HEIs, and expanding their authority on academic issues. In the implementation of this Law, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan introduces amendments and additions to the regulatory legal acts regulating higher education and the procedure for its functioning (Project application, 2019,p. 3).

Successful practices of dual education in Europe (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) can be taken into consideration for HEIs and accreditation authorities to adopt a unified common methodological frame- work that is missing. Despite the attractiveness of the dual system in Kazakhstan, there are barriers that need to be encountered when transferring one system from one country to another.

 

 

 

The current deliverable is based on the preparatory research and activities that partners undertook in the framework of "Workshop on internal/external assessment mechanism and management practices of professional education". The objectives of these activities aim to contribute to a clearer picture of the coverage of each quality tool, when related to the definition of:

      • quality tools with relevance/coverage to accreditation of professional education in Europe;
      • create a typology of quality models and labels with relevance to dual professional education in Kazakhstan;
      • perform a gap analysis on accreditation tools for dual education in Kazakhstan and revise pro- cedures for harmonisation.

 

 

    1. note

 

The research and activities carried out under Task 1.4: “Workshop on internal- external assessment mechanism and management practices of dual professional education for accreditation agencies and HEIs” serve to produce the current report with recommendations for IQAA and MESRK.

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, ACQUIN as a co-leader of WP1, organised a two-day online workshop from 14th-15th June 2021. Restrictions and limitations of non-physical workshop were counterbalanced by clear guidelines before the workshop, as well as dedicated online discussion-sessions during the workshop. The results of the T1.4 workshop could be further validated and compared after the 2nd workshop that will be organised by IQAA.

 

Chapter 2.1 was elaborated based on the report of CEENQA, 2.3 based on the report of IQAA following the guidelines of ACQUIN for the conduction of qualitative and desk research in order to create com- parable results in Europe and Kazakhstan.

 

 

    1. of progress & assumptions

 

The results of the workshop and the accompanied recommendations to MESRK and IQAA are based on the assumption that HEIs and public authorities of the KAZDUAL project are committed to the in- troduction of changes in terms of assessment, processes and quality standards. Acceptance to change concerns also teaching staff and employers in Kazakhstan.

Chapter 4 includes recommendations on how partnership can work towards the enhancement of open communication and dialogue, how external stakeholders can be involved and how resistance to change can be eliminated to exploit project and workshop results.

 

 

  1. Internal & external quality tools: state of play in Europe and Ka- zakhstan

 

In this chapter a more detailed view of the research conducted prior to the workshop and subsequent gap analysis of internal and external quality tools in Europe and in Kazakhstan is presented. The pur- pose of the research was to gather background information on the state of dual education and assess- ment mechanisms in Europe and in Kazakhstan.

In the first step, KazDual project partners, CEENQA and IQAA in consultation with ACQUIN have con- ducted a qualitative research on assessment mechanisms in dual education in Europe and in Kazakh- stan. Additionally, relevant literature was reviewed and presented. The focus of the research was on obtaining perspectives and state of play on dual education and assessment mechanisms in Europe and in Kazakhstan. Project partners conducted online interviews and focus groups with various stakehold- ers including colleges, universities, and accreditation agencies. Such a broad coverage allowed gaining wider perspective on the issue and challenges that education organizations and other relevant stake- holders face with regards to the introduction and implementation of dual education and its assess- ment. As a result of the research, reports by CEENQA and IQAA with the summary of the results were compiled. The research conducted by project partners and ACQUIN served as a main basis for discus- sions during the workshop and for this report.

Moreover, ACQUIN has conducted a desk research on dual education in Germany. Dual education and assessment criteria were presented to the workshop participants. Current state and challenges of dual education as well as the applicability of German accreditation standards in dual education in Kazakh- stan were discussed.

 
    1. of play in Europe

 

The report of CEENQA (Milas & Engelmann, 2021) is based on the desk research and online interviews conducted in April and May 2021 with the representatives of five quality assurance agencies in the Central and Eastern European countries (Slovenia, Montenegro, Ukraine, the Czech Republic, and Lat- via). It identifies the state of play of dual professional education in the Slovenian, Montenegrin, and Ukrainian higher education area.

Online interviews included questions on national context, recent national reforms, internal and exter- nal assessment, applicable standards, and improvements. Following questions have been posed:

 

Topic

Questions

National context

Can you please provide us with a description of the national context of (dual) professional education in your country?

Recent national reforms

Are you aware of recent (in the last 2-3 years) reforms in your country regarding (dual) professional education (HEI or higher VET)? What is the purpose of these

reforms and why were they introduced?

Internal Assess- ment

From your experience in internal assessment of (dual) professional education in your country, what challenges have the education partners encountered?

External Assess-

ment

From your experience in external assessment of (dual) professional education

in your country, what challenges have the education partners encountered?

Applicable stand- ards

Have you undertaken international review procedures in the (dual) profes- sional education? If yes, which ESG standards have been mostly applicable in the external assessment? Have you applied standards/criteria other than the

ESG?

Have you identified conflicting parts with national standards and in which cases?

Improvements

What possibilities for improvement with regards to internal and external as-

sessment of (dual) professional education do you see?

Please provide any other question or feedback you consider relevant.

 

Moreover, a possibility for free input from CEENQA was provided.

The desk research focused on examination of policy development and quality assurance system of dual professional education. Best practices of the accreditation agencies concerning the internal and exter- nal assessment mechanism and management practices of dual professional education were identified. Findings include different models of dual professional education in these countries.

The results show that dual education in these countries is organised differently due to the different educational systems and social context. Dual education in Slovenia is well-established and practical training is offered at higher professional schools, vocational colleges and HEIs. In Latvia and the Czech Republic, a professional higher education programmes exist for very long time. In Latvia education system is differentiated between general, vocational and higher education and differentiation be- tween academic and professional degree programmes exists for long time. In the Czech Republic there is a strict separation between professional and higher education and in 2016 a distinction between academically and professionally oriented programmes was introduced. In Montenegro and in Ukraine, dual professional education is not yet systematically integrated in the higher education. However, both countries have started activities including introducing relevant reforms and supporting activities and projects to implement professional education at different levels.

 

Online interviews reveal that HEIs face several challenges specifically concerning close cooperation with the employers. HEIs pointed out that it is challenging to find appropriate placements for the stu- dents in the companies and at the same time quality of practical training must be ensured. Interview- ees from Montenegro and Ukraine noted that quality assessment mechanisms and regulations of prac- tical training currently lack. Moreover, interviewees emphasized that HEIs should gather more feed- back from the employers regarding the current and future needs and involve experts from the labour market in the education process. In Slovenia, the quality standards related to practical training at HEIs focus on the assessment of practical training of students, its organisation and implementation.

All interviewees emphasized that strategic cooperation between higher and vocational education and training is necessary. Furthermore, the dialogue between teachers and employers/in-company men- tors should be strengthened. The advantages of dual education to the HEIs, government and employ- ers should be underlined in order to ensure the sustainability of the projects on dual educations. Ex- ternal quality assurance should be based on specific quality standards that stresses consistency be- tween the theoretical and practical elements and cooperation between HEIs and employers.

 

 

    1. of play in Germany

 

Dual higher education has a long tradition in Germany and is well-integrated into the general higher education. Hesser (2018) notes that main feature of dual form of study is increased practical orienta- tion and that the learning objectives of dual and non-dual study programmes are similar. Different types of educational institutions in Germany offer dual programmes including universities, universities of applied science, administration and business academies and colleges of advanced vocational stud- ies.

External assessment i.e., accreditation standards are clearly defined and have to be implemented by the universities in order to be accredited as dual education programmes.

The main documents that regulate external assessment of dual education in Germany are the Speci- men decree pursuant to Article 4, paragraphs 1 -4 of the interstate study accreditation treaty (Resolu- tion of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany of December 7, 2017) and Recommendations on the development of dual higher education study, 2013 Position Paper, German Council of Science and Humanities which was adapted by the German Accreditation Council.

The Specimen decree regulates the formal and academic criteria of the study programme. Formal cri- teria regulate structure and duration of higher education studies, profiles for study programmes, ad- mission requirements and transitions between different courses, qualifications and qualification des- ignations, modularisation, credit point systems, special criteria for cooperation with non-university in- stitutions, special regulations for joint degree programmes. Academic criteria for study programmes and quality management systems regulate qualification goals and qualification level, coherent study programme concept and adequate implementation, subject-content organisation of the study pro- grammes, academic success, gender equality and compensation of disadvantages, special regulations for joint degree programmes, concept of the quality management system, measures to implement the quality management concept, cooperations with non-university institutions, cooperations between higher education institutions and special criteria for Bachelor training course at colleges of cooperative education. The paragraph 12 article 6 Coherent study concept and adequate implementation specifi- cally covers study programmes with a particular profile requirement including dual study programmes. The specimen decree (2017) states that “study programmes with a particular profile requirement have

 

a self-contained programme concept that takes the particular characteristics of the profile into due

account” (Kultusminster Konferenz 2017, p. 10).

The Recommendations for the development of dual education by the German Council of Science and Humanities (2013) provide the basis for the systematics of dual study programmes at the higher edu- cational level. The position paper of the German Council of Science and Humanities identifies three obligatory dimensions that a dual study programme needs to fulfil. It includes relationship of the learn- ing venues (university and practice partner), academic standard and the design of practical training. The first dimension concerns interlinkage in terms of subject matter, time scheduling and institutional aspects. The interlinkage in terms of content should be bindingly incorporated into relevant study pro- gramme documents. Cooperation agreements with practice partners ensure content interlinkage and quality assurance. The second dimension, academic standard dimension deals with academic rele- vance and requirements and their conformity with those of the corresponding regular courses of study. This includes duration and intensity of the theoretical part, scope and requirements of the thesis, con- tent, format and assessment of the examinations and recruitment and composition of the teaching staff. The third dimension focuses on curricular design of the practical training. Quality assurance mechanisms should be established at the practical training place and include intensity and timeframe of the practical training and its relations to the academic modules, form of supervision and qualifica- tion of the supervisors in the company and contractual agreement between student and the practice partner. The university has to demonstrate in the accreditation process, that the study programme concept sufficiently and systematically interlinked in terms of content, organisation and contracts and that it thus fulfils obligatory dimensions defined in the position paper. The position paper identifies optional dimensions such as services to be provided by the practical partner, support services by the university and costs and financing.

Meyer-Guckel et.al. (2015) point out that especially dual education strongly depends on dealing with challenges of exchange and open communication with numerous stakeholders involved. The authors note that the interconnection of theory and practice is a core element of the dual education, but at the same time the biggest challenge. Exchange between HEIs and partner companies tends to be more informal and mostly concerns organizational issues. However, there is no one solution to such chal- lenge, therefore individual solutions should be found. In this issue, partner companies should also con- tribute.

 

 

    1. of play in Kazakhstan

 

Independent Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (IQAA) has conducted research with Kazakh educational organisation partners on their experience in the internal and external assessment of dual professional education. The interviews aimed at identifying best practices and challenges of Kazakh educational organisations in relation to the internal and external assessment mechanism and manage- ment practices of dual professional education.

Topics such as national context, recent national reforms, internal and external assessment and appli- cable standards were addressed. The list of questions is presented in the table below. A possibility for free input was provided.

 

Topic

Questions

National context

Does your educational organisation offer or plan to offer dual programmes? If yes, in which field or industry?

 

Topic

Questions

Recent national reforms

Are you aware of recent (in the last 2-3 years) reforms in Kazakhstan regarding professional education (HEI or higher VET)? What is the purpose of these re- forms and why were they introduced?

Do you think national legislation sufficiently covers the area of dual profes-

sional education? Do you see any area for improvement? Please, specify.

Internal Assess- ment

Does your educational organisation apply different internal assessment mech- anisms with regards to dual education programmes? How does it differ from internal assessment of regular programmes?

What challenges has your organisation encountered or expect to encounter

with regards to the internal assessment of dual educational programmes?

External Assess- ment

From your experience in external assessment of professional education in Ka- zakhstan, what challenges has your organisation encountered? What do you assess as positive?

Applicable stand- ards

Has your organisation undergone international accreditation/review proce- dures in the professional education? If yes, did you find any ESG standards that were not applicable in your organisation or difficult to implement? What did

you find positive and what was challenging?

Have you identified conflicting parts with national standards and in which cases?

What possibilities for improvement with regards to internal and external as-

sessment of dual professional education in Kazakhstan do you see?

Please provide any other question or feedback you consider relevant.

 

 

IQAA has conducted two focus groups interviews, one with the representatives of four colleges and the other with representatives of four universities in Kazakhstan that have dual education programmes implemented.

The results of the interviews reveal that both colleges and HEIs plan to increase the number of offered dual education programmes. However, they note that the implementation largely depends on the field of the programme. Interviewees pointed out that they face major challenges in negotiating and signing contracts with the potential employers.

Neither colleges nor HEIs are aware of any recent national reforms concerning the dual education. Moreover, current national legislation does not sufficiently cover the area of dual professional educa- tion including students’ rights and obligations in enterprises. The lack of relevant regulation leads to different interpretations of dual education by educational organisations.

The results of the research show that educational organisations do not implement any internal assess- ment mechanisms concerning dual education programmes, nevertheless they acknowledge the need to develop and implement such.

Educational organisations that were interviewed, have all undergone international accreditations with Kazakh agencies as well as with international agencies. The ESG standards were applied to the national context and educational organisations did not see any challenges in implementing ESG standards.

Educational organisations recommend developing national legislation specifically regulating dual edu- cation including such aspects as definition and standards of dual education and cooperation between an educational organisation and an enterprise. Not only the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan should be involved in the realization of the dual education, but also other stake- holders such as the National Chamber of Entrepreneurs of the Republic of Kazakhstan “Atameken” and local authorities. Interviewees note that dual form of education might not be appropriate in all fields

 

of educational programmes. Therefore, it would be meaningful to identify such educational pro- grammes where such form of study is most meaningful and appropriate. Finally, financial incentives for companies that cooperate with educational organizations should be introduced.

Overall, the results of the research indicate that both colleges and HEIs face similar problems concern- ing dual education. They noted that current national legislation and regulation does not sufficiently cover all aspects necessary to successfully implement dual study programmes. A frequent aspect that both colleges and universities noted is cooperation with the companies. Colleges seem to have a much wider network of organisations and companies where students can get practical training. The report suggests that a closer collaboration between universities and colleges on dual education would be beneficial for both sides.

The feedback of the educational organisations upon presenting the results of the desk research con- firmed the need for further development of regulatory documents.

 

 

 

Overall, the background research as well as discussions during the workshop show that dual education in Europe and in Kazakhstan is differently organised and is in different stage of development. Within countries surveyed in Europe substantial differences exist due to varied economic, social, and political context. However, Central and Eastern European countries surveyed, and Kazakhstan seem to face similar challenges concerning dual education especially related to cooperation with the companies.

In Central and Eastern European countries, ESG standards are applied in the assessment of study pro- grammes. No further specific criteria for assessing dual education exists.

Concerning the external assessment, educational organization in Kazakhstan are familiar with the ESG standards and have experience with an international accreditation. Educational organizations consider ESG standards as applicable in Kazakhstan taking into consideration that national regulations are im- plemented as well. Additional standards on dual education are not yet developed in Kazakhstan. The educational organizations stressed that dual education programmes should have another status as regular study programmes and should fulfil certain characteristics.

 

 

 

  1. 1st Assessment workshop organised by ACQUIN

 

As part of Task 1.4 “Workshop on internal- external assessment mechanism and management practices of dual professional education for accreditation agencies and HEIs”, ACQUIN led the workshop of 14th- 15th June 2021 that replaced the physical in Tallin.

Before the conduction of the workshop, IQAA, CEENQA, MERSK and Kazakh HEIs analysed their needs and identified the objectives of the accreditation and evaluation procedures for courses and pro- grammes in the field of dual professional education in Kazakhstan, taking into consideration best prac- tice experience around Europe through the network of CEENQA. The preparatory work took place from March 2021 to May 2021 through desk research (analysis of best practices, literature review) and qual- itative research (focus groups, in-depth interviews). The research framework is described in detail in the common methodological framework for WP1 developed commonly by PHT Tirol. The protocol of

 

Task 1.4 can be found as a separate document of KazDual deliverables that includes meeting minutes

for all sessions, participants’ list, and partners’ presentations.

The objectives of the workshop were:

  • to present the findings of the desk research/qualitative research on assessment standards & best practices for WP1;
  • to examine current deviations or flaws in the accreditation procedures in professional education assessments in Kazakhstan;
  • to discuss through dedicated sessions with KazDual partners the internal & external assessment mechanisms of dual professional education (both HEI and colleges);
  • to identify a common ground for dual professional education standards in Kazakhstan based on EU QA Framework (ESG) and national standards;
  • to define the internal-external quality control procedures so as to meet internationally recognized accreditation standards in dual professional education.

Discussion rounds in online working groups included questions such as:

    • How do you define dual education in Kazakhstan (main characteristics)? What challenges do you see?
    • What changes and in which areas are necessary in the legislation in order to sufficiently cover dual education?
    • What are the current challenges of external assessments in Kazakhstan (regarding criteria, pro- cedure, legislation etc.)?
    • What improvements or changes in external assessment are necessary with regards to dual education programmes?

In relation to accreditation standards, among the questions addressed were:

    • Do you consider German standards could be applicable in the national context?
    • What opportunities and challenges do you see in the German standards?
    • Should EQAVET indicators be included as additional separate standards for colleges?
    • What additional standards/points should be considered?

The evaluation of the workshop from the partners is presented below. The quantitative results of the analysis of the questionnaire:

 

Questions

Average Score

1

Sufficient time was provided for the organisation of the workshop.

4.8

2

The workshop was properly structured and organised.

4.8

3

The presentations were useful and informative.

4.7

4

The agenda was comprehensive and conclusive.

4.8

5

All workshop participants were actively involved and contributed to cre- ating a collaborative working environment.

4.5

6

There was enough time for discussions and exchange of ideas.

4.6

7

The workshop as a whole was appropriate and productive for the next steps of the project.

4.8

8

The web conferencing platform was easy to use and was operating properly.

4.5

 

 

Questions

Average Score

Total Average

4.7

Number of responses

13

*Scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is “Totally disagree”, 2 is “Disagree”, 3 is “Neutral”, 4 is “Agree” and 5 is “Totally agree”

The qualitative results of the analysis of the questionnaire:

 

Nr.

Open Questions

9

What aspects of the workshop could have been better?

 

  • None, very well structured.
  • The opportunity to discuss the issues of the seminar with colleagues, members of the college, project working group.
  • It would be better to provide a simultaneous interpreter to save time in future events.
  • все хорошо (everything was good).
  • Active participation of the Ministry.
  • It is better to see the European experience once, and then detailed questions arise.
  • Face to face seminars would be effective.
  • Everything was good.
  • Практические занятия (practical lessons).
  • In addition, it would be useful to use interactive forms to answer the questions un- der discussion. This would allow a more rational use of time for discussion.
  • I can't see any.
  • Quality criteria for dual education.

 

 

Nr.

Open Questions

10

Are there any other suggestions/ideas you would like to share with us?

 

  • The seminar was informative, the relevance of the topic was revealed, excellent or- ganization.
  • все было хорошо (everything was fine).
  • Engage even more interested parties, representatives of the Ministry of Industry, Atameken National Chamber of Entrepreneurs.
  • Thank you very much for organizing this workshop, it was fruitful!
  • При презинтации материал спикера предпочтителен на русском языке (When making a presentation, the speaker's material is preferable in Russian).
  • No.
  • Continue to work together and exchange experience.

 

A 2nd workshop will be organised in the second year of the project in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

 
    1. of dual education in Kazakhstan

 

Elements of dual education in Kazakhstan have been implemented since 2012. Following legal docu- ments regulate dual education in colleges and universities; Law on Education, Rules on the Organisa- tion of Dual Education and On approval of the forms of a standard contract for the provision of educa- tional services for pre-school organisations, organisations of secondary, technical and vocational, post- secondary education, a standard contract for professional practice and a standard contract for dual training for organisations of technical and vocational, post-secondary education.

According to the Law on Education Article 1 paragraph 19 -1 “dual training - a form of personnel train- ing combining training in the organization of education with the mandatory periods of industrial train- ing and professional practice at the enterprise (organization) with the provision of jobs and compensa- tion to students with equal responsibility of the enterprise (organization), educational institution and student” (Law On Education, Amendments from 13.11.2015). Article 17 paragraph 6 regulates that “Educational programmes of technical and professional education with the use of dual training provide theoretical training in educational institutions and no less than sixty percent of industrial training, pro- fessional practice on the basis of the enterprise (organization)” (Institute of legislation and legal infor- mation of the Republic of Kazakhstan of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan (n.d.a)).

On 21st of January 2016 Rules on the Organisation of Dual Education were introduced by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The rules regulate dual education on college and HEI level. It defines functions of the participants of dual education programmes including educa- tion organization, student, mentor and National Chamber of Entrepreneurs “Atameken” (Institute of legislation and legal information of the Republic of Kazakhstan of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan (n.d.b)).

In 2016 the order of MERSK On approval of the forms of a standard contract for the provision of edu- cational services for pre-school organisations, organisations of secondary, technical and vocational, post-secondary education, a standard contract for professional practice and a standard contract for dual training for organisations of technical and vocational, post-secondary education was imple- mented (Institute of legislation and legal information of the Republic of Kazakhstan of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan (n.d.)).

Since 2014, Roadmap of dual education in Kazakhstan, initiated and confirmed by the government of Kazakhstan, was introduced, and implemented.

Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan during the workshop stressed that development and implementation of dual education both on college and university level is a high pri- ority for the government. Currently, dual education in colleges is in a more developed stage.

The participants of the workshop from educational organizations shared similar views on the state of dual education in Kazakhstan. Participants noted that there is no detailed legal definition of what makes a dual education, therefore each organization interprets and implements dual education differ- ently. No legal standards of dual education exist in the legislation.

One of the main challenges that HEIs noted is cooperation with the companies. It is generally difficult to motivate companies to cooperate in the long-term and be committed to participate in such study programme. HEIs stated that cooperation with companies in terms of payment, contractual agree- ments and conditions is unclear and challenging. Universities and companies as well as students and companies usually sign a contract. Nevertheless, companies are not interested in paying salary to dual students during the practical parts and to credit these practical elements as a work experience. In

 

addition, the payment that students and supervisors at the companies receive is not regulated. As a result, it is difficult to find employees at the companies that are willing to supervise students. The qualification of supervisors should be also strictly regulated.

Colleges emphasize as well that regulations concerning contractual agreements with companies is not sufficient. Companies are reluctant to sign contract for long period of time. Therefore, normative doc- uments concerning contracts with companies should be developed. Colleges stress that not only Min- istry of Education and Science but also other governmental structures should be involved.

According to the feedback of the colleges, the content structure of dual study programme is divided into theoretical and practical parts, whereby theoretical part makes 60% of the programme. Universi- ties during the workshop noted that dual study programmes consist of theoretical and practical parts as well, though practical part has very low number of credits.

According to the discussions and feedback received from different stakeholders during the workshop, one of the limiting factors in dual systems is cooperation with the companies.

The results of the survey conducted by the Pedagogical University Tirol within the framework of the project KazDual confirm that there is no legal basis established for cooperation between the company and the educational organization.

 

 

 

    1. of external assessment standards in Kazakhstan

 

 

Based on the preparatory research before the workshop, as well as the discussion rounds during the workshop, KazDual partnership has identified the challenges of external assessment in Kazakhstan that are related to assessment criteria, procedures and legislation. Emphasis is placed on the legislative and policy reforms in the national context of dual education in Kazakhstan.

Kazakh education partners reported difficulties that arise from the different regulations between higher education institutes and vocational colleges that offer dual professional education. Different approaches harshen the comparability and distinction between different types and levels of profes- sional education.

According to IQAA, the implementation of dual professional education in Kazakh educational organi- zations has started at different time. The fields of programme realization within the framework of dual professional education depend on the type or direction of the educational organization. For instance, pedagogical universities implement dual education within the framework of educational programmes such as primary education, special pedagogy, and preschool education; technical colleges/universities

  • energy and electronics, mechanical engineering, and agronomy; multidisciplinary college/university
  • mechanical engineering, IT entrepreneurship and digital economy.

KazDual HEIs do not apply any separate assessment mechanism regarding dual programmes. Never- theless, they have stated the need to develop such a mechanism that would allow education institutes to assess their own resources for the implementation of dual education. Regarding the applicable standards for the external assessment, most of the HEIs and colleges have undergone international accreditation with agencies such as IQAA (Kazakhstan), ACQUIN (Germany) and ASIIN (Germany) and are positive to adopting ESG standards at a national level. HEIs reported that relevant legislation is insufficient hat may explain what dual professional education in a Kazakhstani context is, since each educational organization understands dual professional education on its own.

 

In relation to the practical training and internships, quality standards for the recognition of the intern- ship in accordance with the study programme, as well as proper documentation by the education pro- viders are not always clear and comprehensive. Differences in quality standards are also observed be- tween public and private education providers. There are also reported challenges from the universities in identifying appropriate placements for their students. Regarding the challenges that organizations have encountered or expect to encounter, interviewees during the qualitative research under T1.4 stated that common issues for all educational organizations are the lack of enterprises, insufficient number of students who study within the framework of dual professional education, and the lack of mentors for students. The low engagement and motivation of employers to support the practical train- ing of students is impeding the cooperation between HEIs and labour market. Other challenges include lack of financing opportunities and weak internationalisation (i.e. participation in projects) of Kazakh HEIs.

Last but not least, there are reported difficulties in the involvement of experts representing the labour market in relation to the external and external assessment mechanisms of study programmes. In this aspect, it is worth mentioning that time-demanding legislative initiatives for the revision of sectoral standards are not always in pace with the labour market trends that, in some sectors, are changing quicker than law. Closer cooperation between higher education institutions and labour market is es- sential to ensure the quality of the study programmes and their relevance to current labour market demands and trends.

 

 

 

 

    1. of the European standards in Kazakhstan

 

 

The feedback of KazDual HEIs in relation to the applicability of the European standards in Kazakhstan is reported as a table in Annex 6.3. The feedback and discussions during the workshop with Kazakh HEIs and colleges show that ESG are applicable and educational organisations do not face any major challenges implementing these standards.

Regarding German standards, overall HEIs and colleges agree that they are feasible and useful and provide a solid framework, but have to be adapted to the national context and local education system. The standards should be introduced gradually. In comparison to other countries, the country faces the reported main challenges:

  1. lack of legal basis;
  2. dual programmes are little known;
  3. companies need to become real partners and this needs different criteria;
  4. final exam of a dual study programme should be more practice oriented compared to non-dual programmes.

Direct support of the Ministry of Education and Science is necessary to successfully implement such standards.

 
    1. standards

 

 

Currently, eleven national and international accreditation bodies are registered in the Register of rec- ognized accreditation bodies which is organized and approved by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan. One of the conditions to be listed in the Register is a full membership in ENQA and listing in EQAR. This means that most of the agencies conducting accreditations in Kazakh- stan apply ESG, but also take into consideration national legislation.

Additional standards could be developed together with the industry partners such as with the national chamber of entrepreneurs “Atameken” which would take into consideration the requirements of the local industry and local labour market.

ACQUIN suggested the applicability of the European Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training - EQAVET indicators, as were revised in 2020 (Council Recommendations, 2020) especially for the colleges in Kazakhstan.

EQAVET support the quality of initial and continuing vocational training and is compatible with higher VET systems aiming at supporting learning environments (work-based learning, apprenticeships) and all types of learning (digital, face-to-face and blended) that is very relevant during pandemic.

As stated in Annex 6.3 Kazakh HEIs are positive in applying additional QA tools, such as EQAVET indi- cators especially in relation to:

      • the relevance of quality assurance systems for the technical and vocational education organi- sation;
      • investments in the training of teachers and trainers;
      • employment indicators in college programmes;
      • mechanisms to improve accessibility to technical and vocational education;
      • prevalence of vulnerable groups;
      • mechanisms to identify training needs in the labour market.

In relation to the challenges of implementing EQAVET indicators in Kazakhstan, Electrotechnical Col- lege has reported that there might be some discrepancies between national standards that already include aspects of EQAVET indicators.

 

 

    1. of improvement and necessary changes

 

 

What is considered „dual study” is not very clear. Many universities define their study programmes as dual, even if they have only implemented some elements of dual study, so it is important to define the term "dual study" in an overarching way. Based on the feedback of IQAA, there is no particular proce- dure for the accreditation of dual programmes in Kazakhstan. There are six national accreditation agen- cies, but none has developed separate standards for dual programmes, therefore dual programmes are handled as normal study programmes.

Universities need to define standards that have to be met. When implementing a new programme, the most important questions that have to be answered: is there a need for the programme, does it fit into the university profile, are there enough resources, what is the concept and what are the contents.

 

KazDual partnership considers that German standards for assessing dual programmes can be applica- ble in Kazakhstan, with direct support at the state level and the Ministry of Education and Science. German standards are seen as opportunity for:

      • application of knowledge in practice, practice-oriented training that takes into account the basic requirements of employers for the competencies and skills of graduates.
      • raising the level of employment of graduates. Areas of improvement include:
      • regulatory legal acts: such as criteria for payment for both learners and trainers, criteria for crediting the professional experience;
      • the necessity to determine main indicators of dual education in the universities of Kazakhstan;
      • motivation of employers and the involvement of chambers of commerce;
      • list of enterprises by class of secrecy and accessibility;
      • training and certification of engineering-pedagogical staff of colleges and engineering-peda- gogical staff of enterprises according to the dual system;
      • study and dissemination of the experience of dual education using modern technologies;
      • examinations should be conducted by certified examiners;
      • further training in the area of Didactics with regard to developments in the industry;
      • regulated health and safety mechanisms during the apprenticeships.

In the organization of additional education for pedagogical specialties, HEIs suggested to introduce a staff of a curator or mentor with remuneration.

In overall, dual education programmes in Kazakhstan should be flexible enough to ensure response to changes in the labour market and demand for qualifications of specialists. It is necessary to introduce a system of specialized external quality assessment of dual education programmes and qualification development programmes.

Dual training programmes should give continuity to the process of improving competences and pro- fessional skills, transforming into institutions of "corporate training" with the predominant practice of on-the-job training. The priority of employment requires the inclusion of a wider range of competen- cies in dual education programmes, beyond the performance of specific tasks of the company.

 

 

  1. Conclusions and recommendations

 

During the assessment workshop, KazDual partnership recognised the issues mentioned below as most important:

  1. What is the definition of "dual study programme"? What characteristics do they have to have, what criteria do they have to fulfil?
  2. How can the companies be motivated? How can their interest be aroused? The companies must be aware that they are investing in order to get qualified graduates later who can go straight into working life. It should be made clear to the companies.
  3. How should the supervisors be trained and motivated? For these people, supervising students is additional work. Measures need to be considered on how to remunerate the supervisors.
  4. Areas must be defined in which the first dual programmes can be implemented. Areas where it makes the most sense to start.
 
  1. It was important to define that a lot of stakeholders have to be involved. The bigger companies might have more capacity to deal with it. Cooperation agreements should be decided, with rights and obligations for all involved.
  2. Funding is equally important. Support from the ministry is conceivable. There are projects at the moment, but it has to be kept in mind that these projects will end at some point, and therefore sustainable funding has to be secured.
  3. Another point is quality assurance, the interlocking of theory and practice must be ensured.

 

 

    1. to MESKR

 

Since the last years, dual education is a very relevant topic for the Ministry of Education and Science. The currently running programme 2020-2025 has identified the challenges and global trends in educa- tion focusing on digital & social skills, high cognitive skills, flexibility in online learning and self-pace of students. The lack of practical skills that has been identified is expected to be solved by reforms in the dual education.

As reported during the workshop, KazDual HEIs need the support of the state at the legislative level, as well as the involvement of the National Chamber of Entrepreneurs (NCE) "Atameken" in the organ- izational work to attract employers. Among the difficulties is the regulatory framework of the orders of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan that are not binding for enter- prises that offer apprenticeships. It is necessary to develop regulations on dual education that consider the terms of training, the distribution of classroom classes, the mentor's workload and remuneration for students in accordance with the Labour Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

The greatest challenge seems to be in what way the companies could be motivated for participation and how to support them in training the trainers. It also seems important to involve the main stake- holders / the big companies in shaping a dual concept that meets the needs of the market. Another crucial point is the financing of the programmes – as well as quality assurance regarding the linking between theoretical and practical parts of the study programme. The issue of state support includes the exploitation of the resources of NCE “Atameken” and “Kasipkor” Holding.

 

 

 

 

    1. to IQAA

 

Non-governmental organisation, IQAA is the first Kazakh accreditation agency which was established in 2008. IQAA is a full member of the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) and is registered on European Quality Assurance Register (EQAR).

The agency conducts accreditation of different types of educational organisations including pre-school, secondary school, vocational and higher education. On the level of vocational and higher education, IQAA conducts both institutional and programme accreditations. Being an agency registered on EQAR, IQAA bases its accreditation procedures in higher education organisations on the ESG.

Based on conducted background research and discussions during the workshop several recommenda- tions can be made particularly to the IQAA.

 

First, further intensive cooperation and discussions need to be undertaken with the relevant stake- holders which include Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, educational organisations and industry representatives. The discussions with the Ministry could focus on the expe- rience of the accreditation agencies and the actual applicability and feasibility of the proposed legisla- tion and standards. IQAA should consider the needs of the HEIs and colleges and where appropriate adjust the accreditation procedures during the pilot stages of assessment of dual programmes. The emphasis should be placed on different needs and challenges that colleges and HEIs face. The discus- sions need to be undertaken with the national chamber of entrepreneurs “Atameken”, which is a sig- nificant stakeholder and identify the needs and challenges of the industry partners with regards to dual education.

Second, the external assessment of dual education programmes should further be based on the ESG and national legislation. Nevertheless, additional standards for dual education adjusted to the condi- tions in Kazakhstan should be developed and implemented. The experience and standards in Germany could be a starting point to developing standards for Kazakh universities and colleges. Cooperation with an experienced German or European accreditation body might be beneficial in the initial stage.

Third, the accreditation procedure should be adjusted to the characteristics of dual education. This includes involving at least one member of the expert group, an expert on dual education who is knowl- edgeable of international and national specifics of dual form of education. At the pilot stages when the common ground in Kazakhstan is established and expertise is built up, this could be an international expert from Germany, Austria or other European country which has well-established dual education. In addition, documents, and self-assessment report that the HEIs or colleges submit to the agency in the framework of the accreditation procedure should include requirements of the dual education such as templates of the cooperation agreements between a university and a company, work agreement between the company and a student, description of special services and conditions offered to students studying in dual programme etc.

 

 

 

EU Council. (2020). Recommendation of 24 November 2020 on vocational education and training (VET) for sustainable competitiveness, social fairness and resilience (2020/C 417/01). Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32020H1202(01)&from=EN.

 

Hesser, W. (2018). Implementation of a dual system of higher education within foreign universities and enterprises. Helmut-Schmidt-Universität, Hamburg.

http://opus.ub.hsu-hh.de/volltexte/2018/3189/pdf/Duale_Hochschulausbildung_final.pdf

 

Institute of legislation and legal information of the Republic of Kazakhstan of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (n.d.a). Law on Education of 7 July 1992. https://adilet.zan.kz/eng/docs/Z070000319_

 

Institute of legislation and legal information of the Republic of Kazakhstan of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (n.d.b). Ob utverzhdenii Pravil organizazii dualnogo obucheniya. Prikaz Ministra obrazovaniya i nauki Respubliki Kazakhstan ot 21 yanvarya 2016 goda № 50. https://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/V1600013422

 

Institute of legislation and legal information of the Republic of Kazakhstan of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (n.d.c). Ob utverzhdenii form tipovogo dogovora okazaniya obra- zovatenlnyh uslug dlya doshkolnyh organizazii, organizazii srednego, technicheskogo i professional- nogo, poslesrednego obrazovaniya, tipovogo dogovora o dualnom obuchenii dlya organizazii tech- nicheskogo I professionalnogo, poslesrednego obrazovaniya. https://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/V1600013227

 

IQAA. (2021). Qualitative report on internal and external assessment mechanisms at the Kazakh edu- cational organizations. Report created within the framework of the Erasmus+ programme, Capacity building in higher education under the activities of the project “Implementing dual system in Kazakh- stan/KazDual.

Kultusminister Konferenz. (2017). Specimen decree pursuant to Article 4, paragraphs 1 -4 of the in- terstate study accreditation treaty. https://www.kmk.org/fileadmin/Dateien/veroeffentlichun- gen_beschluesse/2017/2017_12_07-Musterrechtsverordnung-englisch.pdf

 

Meyer-Guckel V., Nickel S., Püttmann V. & Schröder-Kralemann A. (Hrsg.) (2015). Qualitätsentwick- lung im dualen Studium - Ein Handbuch für die Praxis. Edition Stifterverband

Milas M., & Engelmann J.P. (2021). Report on the policy developments and the quality assurance sys- tem of dual professional education in Central and Eastern European higher education frameworks.

Report created within the framework of the Erasmus+ programme, Capacity building in higher educa-

tion under the activities of the project “Implementing dual system in Kazakhstan/KazDual.

Wissenschaftsrat. (2013). Empfehlungen zur Entwicklung des dualen Studiums. Positionspapier. https://www.wissenschaftsrat.de/download/archiv/3479-13.pdf? blob=publicationFile&v=1

 

 

 

    1. Research

 

    1. Research
 

 

    1. of European standards in Kazakh HEIs (Feedback from KAZDUAL HEIs)

 

 

Universities/Colleges KAZDUAL

Do you consider German standards could be applica- ble in the national context?

What opportunities and challenges do you see in the German standards?

Should EQAVET indicators be included as additional sepa- rate standards for colleges?

What additional standards/points should be considered from national or European tools? – Further recommen-

dations

South-Kazakhstan University

South-Kazakhstan Universi- tyYes, these German stand- ards are applicable, with di- rect support at the state level and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Provided that the German standards should be introduced gradually (in stages).

Opportunities:

  1. Application of knowledge in practice, practice-oriented training that takes into ac- count the basic requirements of employers for the compe- tencies and skills of our grad- uates.
  2. A good chances to stay in a company, a good opportunity to raise the level of employ- ment of graduates. Problems:

Lack of regulatory legal acts; Lack of motivation of employ- ers;

The absence of a list of enter- prises by class of secrecy and accessibility.

Lack of vacation time, difficul- ties with changing the spe- cialty.

  1. The relevance of quality as- surance systems for the tech- nical and vocational educa- tion organisation
  2. Investments in the training of teachers and trainers
  3. Employment indicators in college programmes
  4. Use mechanisms to im- prove accessibility to tech- nical and vocational educa- tion

Additional standards/points in the na- tional instrument should be taken into account:

  • A comprehensive school should form an integral system of uni versal knowledge, the key competen cies that determine the professional orientation of schoolchildren.
  • It is necessary to determine the main indicators of dual education in the universities of the Republic of Kazakh stan, since currently there is an element of dual education in our universities.

 

Further recommendations:

We need the support of the state at the legislative level.

  • Since colleges are always in search of partners (enterprises), we would like the state and “Kasipkor” Holding to assist in cooperation.
  • It is necessary to involve Na tional Chamber of Entrepreneurs (NCE) "Atameken" in the organizational work to attract employers.

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

Universities/Colleges KAZDUAL

Do you consider German standards could be applica- ble in the national context?

What opportunities and challenges do you see in the German standards?

Should EQAVET indicators be included as additional sepa- rate standards for colleges?

What additional standards/points should be considered from national or

European tools? – Further recommen- dations

 

 

 

 

  1. It is necessary to develop regulations on dual education, which takes into ac- count the terms of training, the distri- bution of classroom classes, the men- tor's workload and remuneration for students in accordance with the Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
  2. State support in the organization of additional education and use the re- sources of NCE “Atameken”, “Kasipkor” Holding.
  3. For law enforcement agencies to pro- vide separate conditions for organiza- tions of additional education with state support and NCE “Atameken”, “Kasip- kor” Holding.
  4. In the organization of additional edu- cation for pedagogical specialties, pro- vide or introduce a staff of a curator or mentor with remuneration.

KAZNPU

In general, German standards are applicable in Kazakhstan. (taking into account the spe- cifics of the national educa- tion system)

a. Taking into account the German standards, where there is an item "Dual educa- tion: optional dimensions", Kazakhstani universities would quickly introduce the elements of dual education.

Yes. Especially indicators: In- vestment in training of teach- ers and trainers, Participation rate in VET programmes, Completion rate in VET pro- grammes, Placement rate in VET programmes, Utilisation

of acquired skills at the

One of the ways to increase the effec- tiveness of professional training of per- sonnel is currently dual training.

We offer the introduction of dual edu- cation through the organization of in- ternship (seminars and practical Univer-

sity lessons should be carried out for a full internship in a company / school, it

 

 

Universities/Colleges KAZDUAL

Do you consider German standards could be applica- ble in the national context?

What opportunities and challenges do you see in the German standards?

Should EQAVET indicators be included as additional sepa- rate standards for colleges?

What additional standards/points should be considered from national or

European tools? – Further recommen- dations

 

 

b. In Kazakhstan, joint degree programmes are not legally regulated, and the “Special Rules for Joint Degree Pro- grammes” clause would ad- dress this issue at the univer- sity level.

workplace, Prevalence of vul- nerable groups, Mechanisms to identify training needs in the labour market, Schemes used to promote better ac- cess to VET

should be more hours if the level is higher):

  • on the 1st year of bachelor degree (BA) study all pedagogical specialties should introduce the implementation of practical lessons in the discipline "In- troduction to the specialty";
  • on the 2nd year of BA study - the or- ganization of practical classes in the dis- cipline "Methods of educational work" and the elective course "Interaction be- tween school and family" / "School workflow", "Communication", "Work- ing with parents", etc;
  • in the internship of the 3rd year of BA, didactics is implemented in general, fur- ther strengthening of practical training is the organization of all lessons on the basis of modern pedagogical technolo- gies: "Methods for teaching primary classes", "Methods for teaching chem- istry" and so on (seminars and practical University lessons should be carried out on on-the-job training);
  • in the production practice of the 4th year of BA study, the whole complex of qualification requirements is imple-

mented in the context of all studied elective disciplines.

 

 

Universities/Colleges KAZDUAL

Do you consider German standards could be applica- ble in the national context?

What opportunities and challenges do you see in the German standards?

Should EQAVET indicators be included as additional sepa- rate standards for colleges?

What additional standards/points should be considered from national or

European tools? – Further recommen- dations

 

 

 

 

 

BA Students of 2-3 years of ped- agogical universities in Kazakhstan are officially allowed to engage in labour activities, since they have sufficient knowledge to perform certain jobs. Re- garding the 1st year student, this cate- gory of students does not yet have suf- ficient experience and knowledge for work, therefore, we recommend to name this category of students in the employment contract and for seniority

- "company/school trainee" or "com- pany/school assistant".

An internship based on dual ed- ucation (one day a week at the univer- sity for the 4th year, the rest of the time at the workplace) will increase its vol- ume to 60-70% of the curriculum. In- dustrial practice in the 4th year, taking place throughout the academic year, will make it possible to concretize the topic of final qualifying works, which will really be focused on the potential needs of a modern school, and not be

of a general pedagogical nature, etc.

Karaganda Polytechnical Col- lege

Yes, we do.

- Availability of accreditation agencies.

Yes, they should.

1) In the Republic of Kazakhstan, DSE has been introduced for 9 years, in par- ticular in colleges, but only the colleges

 

 

Universities/Colleges KAZDUAL

Do you consider German standards could be applica- ble in the national context?

What opportunities and challenges do you see in the German standards?

Should EQAVET indicators be included as additional sepa- rate standards for colleges?

What additional standards/points should be considered from national or

European tools? – Further recommen- dations

 

 

  • The synchronization of train ing programmes of colleges and universities is traced.
  • According to German stand ards, a student can work dur ing vacations, in the Republic of Kazakhstan strict adher- ence to the duration of vaca tions 11 weeks.

 

of the Kazakhmys company (in the Ka- raganda region) have a positive experi- ence of approaching German stand- ards. Most of the problems are associ- ated with an imperfect regulatory framework: orders of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan are not binding on enter- prises.

2) If the form of the final certification of graduates is a demonstration exam, this should be reflected in the state compul-

sory education standard.

Shakarim University

The standards are applicable, but you need to create the necessary conditions for this.

Communication between the Chamber of Commerce and Industry - Enterprises-Educa- tional Institutions-Student provides great opportunities.

Some of these indicators are taken into account in the rat- ings of training programmes, it is necessary to see in more detail the approaches for TVET.

Classification of partner enterprises by the dynamics of new jobs (intensive and extensive growth).

For the university system, support is needed from local authorities, the Chamber of Entrepreneurs by analogy

with colleges.

Electrotechnical College

German standards are appli- cable in the national context, taking into account the pecu- liarities of the development of technical education in Ka- zakhstan.

The main problem is the search for responsible, con- scientious social partners (en- terprises) for the implemen- tation of dual education.

The possibility of implement- ing a close relationship be- tween theoretical and practi- cal training, communication

We suggest, that this should not be done, since Kazakh- stan has its own state stand- ard and/or include EQAVET indicators in agreement with the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Ka- zakhstan.

  • Creation of a state mechanism for regulating the work of industrial en- terprises and increasing the role of enterprise responsibility at the state level.
  • Training and certification of engi- neering-pedagogical staff of col- leges and engineering-pedagogical
 

 

Universities/Colleges KAZDUAL

Do you consider German standards could be applica- ble in the national context?

What opportunities and challenges do you see in the German standards?

Should EQAVET indicators be included as additional sepa- rate standards for colleges?

What additional standards/points should be considered from national or

European tools? – Further recommen- dations

 

 

with production, the oppor- tunity for students to work on modern equipment, the opening of joint laboratories for training.

 

staff of enterprises according to the dual system.

  • Involvement of the Chamber of En- trepreneurs in the process of dual education and local executive bod- ies.
  • Study and dissemination of the ex-

perience of dual education using modern technologies.

Karagandy University Bu- ketov

Yes.

In Kazakhstan necessary changes in the legislative norms regulating the issues of investment in the training of teachers and trainers, the interaction between educa- tional institutions and com- panies. This will increase the interest of companies in in- teraction with universities and colleges in the frame- work of dual programmes, in- crease motivation and re- sponsibility of mentors from enterprises. Also, there are almost no norms that regu- late the implementation of dual training in higher educa- tion institutions. In this re- gard, as a rule, universities

Yes.

  • Internal system of quality assur- ance of dual education pro- grammes
  • Information and educational re- sources of dual education pro- grammes
  • Partnership in the implementation of dual education programmes
  • Additional qualifications

 

Further recommendations:

  • Dual education programmes should be flexible, which will ensure a rapid response to changes in the la- bour market and demand for quali- fications of specialists, the needs of different target groups and sectors of industry. It is necessary to intro-

duce a system of specialized exter- nal quality assessment of dual

 

 

Universities/Colleges KAZDUAL

Do you consider German standards could be applica- ble in the national context?

What opportunities and challenges do you see in the German standards?

Should EQAVET indicators be included as additional sepa- rate standards for colleges?

What additional standards/points should be considered from national or

European tools? – Further recommen- dations

 

 

use only separate, unrelated elements of dual education. In order to be able to evalu- ate dual programmes, it is necessary to generalize the best practices, to analyze the implemented dual pro- grammes, to form evaluation indicators. This will ensure the compliance of dual pro- grammes with the modern la- bor market, increase their at- tractiveness, make it possible to ensure the development of dual programmes on the ba- sis of analytical research and

forecasts.

 

education programmes and qualifi- cation development programs.

  • Dual training programmes should give continuity to the process of im- proving competences and profes- sional skills, transforming into insti- tutions of "corporate training" with the predominant practice of on- the-job training. The priority of em- ployment requires the inclusion of a wider range of competencies in dual education programmes, be- yond the performance of specific tasks of the company.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Report on the policy developments and the quality assurance system of dual professional education in Central and Eastern European higher education frameworks

 

AUTHORS

Maja Milas, Quality Assurance Adviser at SQAA

Jan Philipp Engelmann, Secretary General of CEENQA, Project Manager at ASIIN

 

 

 

 

 

DATE

20. 05. 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This document was created within the framework of the Erasmus + programme, Capacity building in higher education under the activities of the project »Implementing dual system in Kazakhstan / KAZDUAL«.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

This report identifies the state of play of dual professional education in the Slovenian, Montenegrin and Ukrainian higher education area. In particular, the report examines policy developments and analyses the quality assurance system of dual professional education. The report is based on the desk research and interviews of the representatives from five quality assurance agencies. The report identifies best practices of the accreditation agencies concerning the internal and external assessment mechanism and management practices of dual professional education. The report presents different models of dual professional education in participating countries, points out challenges of the quality assessment of dual professional education and provides recommendations that may be used in implementing dual education in Kazakhstan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DISCLAIMER

The opinions expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Commission.

 

 

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Objectives of the report................................................................................................................................................ 4

METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................................................................... 5

STATE OF PLAY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF DUAL EDUCATION SYSTEM ACROSS EUROPE....... 5

Slovenia............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Montenegro........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

Ukraine................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

The Czech Republic...................................................................................................................................................... 10

Latvia................................................................................................................................................................................. 11

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.......................................................................................................... 13

REFERENCES...................................................................................................................................................................... 15

ANNEX 1: Interview questionnaire........................................................................................................................... 17

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Objectives of the report

 

Education and practical training are key areas that support students in their professional and personal development. The benefits of appropriate education and training for students are broad and well documented. It ultimately equips them with the proper knowledge and skills to enter the world of work. The European Commission has called on members states to step up their efforts to develop and foster practical training, which would increase students' skills, enable easier school-to-work transition, and expand employment opportunities. On the other hand, there are several challenges in implementing and evaluating forms of dual professional education that are capable of improving students' competencies according to the needs and expectations of the labour market.

 

This report has been developed within the framework of the Erasmus + programme “Capacity building in higher education” under the activities of the project “Implementing dual system in Kazakhstan (KAZDUAL)”. The main goal of the KAZDUAL project is the adaptation of a dual system in Kazakhstan that improves the competencies of students according to the needs of employers. Likewise, the project strives to increase the employability of graduates and to strengthen the cooperation of higher education institutions (HEIs) with the private sector.

 

When talking about professional education in higher education, it must be noted there are different models and variations of practical training in higher education area varying from country to country. For the purpose of this study, we used a broad approach. We included in a survey all higher education institutions (or VET provider) and degree programmes, which integrate mandatory practical training at companies.

 

The main aim of this report is to focus on the quality assurance and assessment mechanisms of dual professional education. The report also identifies the state of play of dual professional education in different European countries and analyses practices on internal and external assessment mechanisms of dual professional education, gained from different quality assurance agencies.

This document is meant to:

  • explore national context of dual professional education in higher education in participating countries;
  • discuss recent reforms regarding dual professional education at higher education institutions (HEIs) and VET (vocational education and training) providers in higher education;
  • identify challenges of the internal and external assessment of dual professional education in participating countries;
  • explore the implementation of ESG/other relevant quality standards in the external assessment; procedures and identify possible conflicting parts with national standards;
  • propose possible improvements with regards to internal and external assessment of dual professional education.
 

 

METHODOLOGY

Activities of this study were conducted from 22 April to 21 May 2021. During this period, the researchers:

    • mapped available information on the dual professional education in the higher education area in Slovenia, Montenegro, Ukraine, the Czech Republic, and Latvia;
    • carried out a literature review of what is known in terms of regulation and quality assurance system of the dual professional education in higher education in participating countries;
    • conducted online interviews with representatives of different quality assurance agencies in participating countries;
    • analysed the characteristics of dual professional education and assessment mechanisms in these countries to identify their success factors and challenges;
    • developed recommendations on possible improvements regarding the internal and external assessment of dual professional education that can be used in the adaptation of a dual system in Kazakhstan.

 

The report was completed based on desk research (national sources) and interviews. Due to the challenges that COVID-19 has brought, the interviews were conducted via digital means. Interviewees were selected based on the knowledge of participants regarding the dual professional education and experiences with quality standard and accreditations and evaluations in dual professional education.

 

 

STATE OF PLAY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF DUAL EDUCATION SYSTEM ACROSS EUROPE

 

Vocational education and training usually combine theoretical knowledge and practical learning. Professional training in the context of educational programmes on levels 5 and 6 of the European Qualification Framework (EQF)1 can be offered in several forms, embedded in classes, projects or workshops or in a work-based context in a company. When work-based learning takes place in a company, this can also be offered in several forms, from a short internship to a fully-fledged apprenticeship based on a formal contract between student and employer.

 

The conducted study showed that the manner and extent to which work-based learning is integrated into different professional study programmes and professional schools differ starkly across the analysed countries. These differences arise from different historical, political, social and economic context, making it impossible for all countries to implement the same model. The chapters below are dedicated to the analyses of the dual professional education systems and quality assurance mechanisms in Slovenia, Montenegro, Ukraine, the Czech Republic, and Latvia. Special emphasis is placed on the national context of dual professional education, recent reforms and challenges of the internal and external assessment of dual professional education in participating countries.

 

Slovenia

 

The importance attributed to the responsiveness of education and practical training to the employment schemes for the graduates and the needs of the labour market in Slovenia facilitates a relatively solid system of dual professional education. The dual professional education in Slovenia has a good tradition dating from 1993, when the first three-year higher professional programmes were introduced.2

 

 
 
 

 

1 The EQF categorises all qualifications into eight levels, see https://europa.eu/europass/en/european-qualifications-framework-eqf. Of the programmes relevant for this study, level 5 mostly refers to short cycle programmes building up on vocational education, whereas level 6 mainly encompasses programmes on a Bachelor level.

2 National programme of higher education in Slovenia, http://www.pisrs.si/Pis.web/pregledPredpisa?id=NACP33

 

 

 

In Slovenia, there are two instances of dual professional education in the higher education framework. There are two types of higher education institutions that provide dual professional education – higher professional schools and higher vocational colleges. Higher professional schools (HPSs, »visoke strokovne šole«) offer 3-year study programmes of the first bologna cycle with mandatory practical teaching, whereas higher vocational colleges (HVC, »višje strokovne šole«) provide short-cycle programmes. Both instances are emphasising practical education in working environments. In the context of autonomy and jurisdiction, the regulatory structure for each type of institution, is, however, different. Students also gain a different level of education according to the Slovenian Qualifications Framework.

 

The area of higher vocational education is in the domain of the Ministry responsible for education. The National Institute for Vocational Education (CPI) provides development-related and counselling support, while the National Council of Experts for Vocational education and/or the Committee for Accreditation of short-cycle higher vocational study programmes and higher vocational colleges are involved in the accreditation and evaluation procedure. The supervision of their operations is the responsibility of the school inspectorate. The Higher Vocational Education Act and the evaluation criteria of the Slovenian Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (SQAA) specify quality in higher vocational colleges. The external evaluation of higher vocational colleges is the responsibility of the SQAA and its council. On a general level, HVCs are a part of tertiary education in Slovenia. Nevertheless, the state regulates the area in higher vocational education in very regulated manner. The programmes, courses, subjects are clearly defined. Accordingly, students have to complete exactly 400 hours of practical work in a working environment. This type of traineeship enables direct contact with employers and enables them to gain relevant work experience during the studies. Study programmes in HVCs are based on professional standards that reflect the actual needs of the world of work.

 

In the last couple of years, the essential document in the area of higher vocational education was the adoption of the Strategy of higher vocational education for the period 2020-2030. The Strategy focuses on analysing the current state and the main challenges of vocational education in Slovenia while also highlighting the path forward in terms of approach and concrete legislation shifts. There were no significant reforms in the last years, emphasising dual professional education on the national level.

 

On a quality assurance level, practical training is assessed at higher professional schools, vocational colleges and higher education institutions that implement professional study programmes. The Higher Education Act and Criteria for the accreditation and external evaluation of higher education institutions and study programmes specify the quality standards for practical training. Practical training is an essential component of these programmes. These practice-oriented programmes differ from other university or academic programmes. Accordingly, the standard is not applicable in doctoral study programmes.

 

The participants of the interview reported that one of the most pressing matters for the institutions providing dual professional education stems from the different system and regulations between higher professional schools and higher vocational colleges. The fact that there are two types of institutions that provide similar professional education contributes to a lot of confusion on comparability and distinction between professional education types. This confusion has a significantly negative impact on the positioning of HVCs inside of tertiary education in Slovenia, who have yet to carve out a recognizable position within the Slovenian higher education area. Likewise, different institutions that exercise control regarding HPSs and HVCs and separate legislation only add to the confusion. Other challenges characteristic for HVCs are deficient financing, weak internalization and project participation, lengthy and rigid procedures of study program reform, teacher’s standards for the election to the title and transfers between higher vocational study programmes and first-cycle study programmes.

 

The interviews participants also highlighted the challenges regarding acknowledgement of practical training/internships for employed students. The participants reported unclear and not comprehensive acknowledgement of different elements of the implemented practice. The quality standards for the acknowledgement of an internship prescribes that the internship can be recognized only when it is

 

 

appropriate in terms of content, complexity, scope, quality and in accordance with the study programme. The report's conclusions suggest there is need to pay special attention to criteria for the acknowledgement of practical training. Recognition of the practice must be documented by the institution and it must be clear from the documents.

 

Evaluation procedures in the Slovenian higher education area are conducted by the Slovenian Quality Assurance Agency (NAKVIS/SQAA). Still, the jurisdiction of the agency differs when it comes to HPSs and HVCs as already mentioned. In the case of HPSs, it is the agency that grants accreditation to institutions and study programmes, while the agency does not adopt decisions on the re-accreditation of HVCs. This is under the authority of a ministry responsible for higher education which, following the law, must take into consideration the agency's opinion. That means that in both instances, evaluation procedures are conducted, but the outcome is different. This divided jurisdiction has a negative effect on the said procedures because in the case of HVCs the agency's role is merely instructional, which in turn also hinders the follow-up procedure and the quality circle. Nevertheless, NAKVIS assessments still provide some useful conclusions on the quality of HVCs listed below.

 

The representatives on the interviews pointed out, that one of the main challenges for both HPSs and HVCs are unsuitability of some employers that provide practical education, unsuitable recognition of practical education, difference of quality between public and private institutions, unstable staff (small amount of full- time teachers), lack of strategic planning, non-systematic acquisition of feedback from students and graduates, lack of student mobility and lack of student engagement in extra-curricular activity such as self- evaluation reports.

 

In Slovenia, there was not undertaken any international review procedures in dual professional education except the fact that NAKVIS uses foreign experts in their reviews. On a general level, the NAKVIS criteria is based on ESGs, which means all ESG standards related to standards and guidelines for external quality assurance are included. Besides the NAKVIS criteria, the HPSs and HVCs must also abide by the legislation issued by the ministry responsible for higher education (Higher Education Act and Higher Vocational Education Act).

 

On a project level within the domain of higher vocational colleges, the Association of HCV carries of different European and international project fostering the bridge between higher education institutions and the world of work, including Procsee, BuildPHE, SAPS, Apprentice track, Apprenticeshipq, Mentortrain, QA_Lead, VET21001.3

 

 

Montenegro

 

The implementation of dual professional education in Montenegro has been seen as one of the strategic measures for boosting the efficiency of practical training among young people. A broader framework has been set regarding higher education to improve relations between all parties in the process: students, higher education institutions, and employers. Several strategic documents support the implementation of the dual education system, including the Development Strategy of Higher Education in Montenegro (2016- 2020), Development Strategy of University of Montenegro (2019-2024) and Strategy of internationalization of the University of Montenegro.

 

However, the dual professional education is still not fully and systematically integrated into Montenegrin higher education framework, including an appropriate legal regulation, introducing relevant reforms and establishing internal quality standards and assessment mechanisms for dual professional education. Practical training for students such as apprenticeship, hands-on training, project work, etc. is not organized systematically integrated into study programmes.

 

 

 
 
 

 

3 Association of Slovene Higher Vocational Colleges – Association HVC, https://www.skupnost-vss.si/en/home-2

 

 

Compared to Slovenia, the Montenegrin higher education framework does not differentiate between higher vocational colleges, higher professional schools, or any similar VET institution. However, the Montenegrin Higher Education Act in 81 article differentiate between professional higher education study programmes and academic study programmes. The Higher Education Act states that the study programmes must contain theoretical and practical classes at higher education institutions. The practical courses referred amount to at least 25% concerning the total student workload by subjects or study years, depending on the learning outcomes for a particular study programme.

 

Quality assurance of higher education is regulated by the Law on Higher Education and the relevant by- laws. Pursuant to the Law, the tasks of quality assurance in higher education are performed by the Agency for Control and Quality Assurance of Higher Education and the Council for Higher Education.4 By establishing of the Agency, for the first time in Montenegro, in accordance with EU legislation and recommendations in the field of higher education quality, quality assurance mechanisms will be improved. With the establishment of the Agency, the quality assurance system is harmonized with the recommendations of the European Union and the standards of the European Higher Education Area. The agency supports HEIs in implementing work-based practices by participating in projects in the respective field or communicating and coordinating with relevant stakeholders such as decision-makers, employers, and HEI’s.

 

Positively, the consortium of four faculties of the University of Montenegro, from different fields (Faculty of Economics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality and Faculty of Maritime Studies) started with the project titled Strengthening capacities for the implementation of dual education in Montenegro higher education / DUALMON. The main aim of the project is to improve the competencies of higher education graduates in Montenegro through the development of a generic model of dual education and a legal framework for the introduction of dual education to support different needs and interests of students, companies, higher education institutions (HEIs) in the country and to provide recommendations to HEIs for implementation of dual education in entire Montenegro.

 

The project DUALMON will try to propose a change of legal framework and quality assurance standards in higher education to create a legal base for the adaptation of dual education into higher education in Montenegro. It is foreseen that project will produce Recommendations to HEIs in Montenegro on how to implement dual higher education to initiate implementation and development of dual education.

 

 

Ukraine

 

The Ukrainian professional dual education programme with learning at the workplace is steadily growing in the last couple of years. The lack of systematic cooperation between higher education institutions (HEIs) and employers and the lack of modernization of the education according to the needs of the Ukrainian economy led the Collegium of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine in 2018 to develop the Concept of Dual Education5. After that, a campaign was launched to promote dual education among all stakeholders - universities, employers, trade unions, with the involvement of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, the Ministry of Social Policy and the Ministry of Youth and Sport.

 

The official government has started activities to foster the quality of education at different levels: from preschool to higher and adult education. Among others, the current reform is also focused on the establishment of modern professional education. The content of professional higher education is foreseen

 

 

 
 
 

 

4 Quality Assurance in Higher Education: https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/montenegro/quality-assurance-higher- education_en

5 Dual Education Concept for Ukrainian Educational Institutions, http://fes.kiev.ua/n/cms/25/?L=1&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=372&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5 D=detail&cHash=e6b6b360b7879ab08eec7ea389981ba8

 

 

to be updated in the context of the labour market needs. The Modern Professional Education Concept6 to 2027 includes the reform of three areas of professional training: management and funding decentralisation, improving professional education quality, and enhancing ties with the labour market.

 

The main aim of the Dual Education Concept is to develop the principles and guidelines to improve the quality of professional training based on a dual form of education. The implementation of the Concept is designed to be implemented in three stages. The first stage foresees the development of the legal framework for introducing the dual professional education in 2018 and 2019. The second stage in 2019 and 2020 is meant to develop standard models of the dual professional education at HEIs and implement pilot projects of dual professional models, following evaluation. The last stage is the creation of clusters of dual professional education.

 

The starting point of modern reforms in higher education was the Law of Ukraine On Higher Education in 2014, a baseline to necessary changes in higher education. After these reforms, the Ukrainian government established an autonomous system aligned with the European higher education and ESG, The National Agency for Higher Education Quality Assurance (NAQA). The NAQA Charter defines the National Agency as the permanent collegial body authorised by the Law of Ukraine On Higher Education to implement state policy in higher education quality assurance. The accreditation system of NAQA is based on European standards (ESG-2015).

 

On a general level, training of specialists with higher education is carried out according to the relevant educational or scientific programmes at the following levels of higher education: initial level (short cycle); first (bachelor’s) level; second (master’s) level; third (educational-research / educational-creative) level. Higher education at each level involves the successful implementation of the relevant educational or research programme, which is the basis for awarding the appropriate degree of higher education: 1) junior bachelor; 2) bachelor; 3) master; 4) doctor of philosophy/doctor of arts. Higher education is provided at universities, academies and institutes, technical schools, colleges, conservatories (i.e. musical academies). All of these institutions offer both professionally oriented and academic programmes.7

 

In the evaluation process, HEIs have to justify how the objectives and programme outcomes of the study in the educational programme comply with the tendencies according to which the speciality field and labour market needs. In a broader context, the survey's conclusions suggest a lack of reliable information about employers' current and future needs, including information about the desired competencies of students and graduates. The survey's conclusions suggest that graduates are unable to reach their full potential in the labour market, mainly because they are not ready for the independent professional activity that corresponds to the acquired education. This is also connected with the fact that employment of graduates is not systematically monitored. The needs analysis presented in the Dual Concept suggests that the quality of higher education partially fails to meet the expectations of employers, students and society. There is insufficient funding for educational institutions to create a modern material and technical base of practical training. There are also challenges related to the involvement of experts from the labour market in the education process. The current state policy is aimed to increase the autonomy of higher education institutions, provide transparent and equal access to quality higher education and enable the easier school to work transition.

 

Similarly, as in Montenegro, HEIs in Ukraine in January 2021 together with partners from Moldovia started with a three-year project. Project COOPERA8 »Integrating Dual Higher Education in Moldova and Ukraine« from the Erasmus+ programme, Capacity Building of Higher Education. The project aim is to integrate Dual

 

 
 
 

 

6 Ukraine Government portal, Education and Science reform, Internet: https://www.kmu.gov.ua/en/reformi/rozvitok-lyudskogo- kapitalu/reforma-osviti

7 The National Agency for Higher Education Quality Assurance (NAQA), Internet: https://en.naqa.gov.ua/wp- content/uploads/2021/02/Self-Assessment-Report.pdf

8 University Krok, Project Coopera, 14 August 2018, Internet:https://int.krok.edu.ua/en/current-news/item/225-erasmus-grant- winning-of-project-coopera-integrating-dual-higher-education-in-moldova-and-ukraine

 

 

Higher Education (DHE) in the Partner countries in general, and to improve individual employability and development, increase suitability and continuity between the demands of the professional world and the initial training of university students, and achieve of greater economic efficiency and social integration, in particular. The project's aims to identify needs and specific requirements of companies in different industrial sectors and businesses for dual profesional education, identify the needs of the labour market and establish flexible approaches of the dual professional education and pilot implementation of specific dual models and propose changes to legislation/regulations to adapt dual profesional education in the Partner countries.

 

The Czech Republic

 

In the Czech Republic, there has traditionally been a relatively strict separation between professional education and higher education. Regular secondary vocational education is provided by vocational schools. There are also tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) for high school graduates with a strong practical focus, which are considered part of the vocational education system that is subject to its own legislation and quality assurance.9

 

In contrast, Czech higher education has mostly had a more theoretical focus. In an attempt to strengthen the employability of graduates and the connection between HEIs and employers, a distinction was created between academically and professionally oriented degree programmes in 2016.10 Consequently, the respective HEI has to define each Bachelor’s or Master’s degree programme as having either an academic or a professional/career orientation. While the former is supposed to focus more on theoretical knowledge, the latter shall concentrate rather on practical skills necessary for the pursuit of a profession in the respective field of study. However, the distinction is meant to be of a rather gradual nature, as both types of degree programmes should include theoretical as well as practical elements. The difference in the learning outcomes that are pursued by the two types of programme are to be reflected in the curricula and the teaching staff. Moreover, the institution has to be sufficiently connected in the academic or professional world, respectively. As a further specific feature, professionally oriented programmes need to include at least twelve weeks of practical training for the students at a Bachelor’s, and at least six weeks at a Master’s level.11 In practice, this means that the practical orientation of a programme should be manifest in the contents, the professional experience of the teaching staff, and close cooperation with employers in the relevant field, which also includes the opportunity of the students to do their mandatory internship at these companies or institutions.

 

Bachelor’s and Master’s programmes are in principle subject to the same regulations concerning quality assurance, apart from the mentioned peculiarities. Individual programmes or the entire institution providing them have to go through an external accreditation procedure conducted by the National Accreditation Bureau for Higher Education (NAB, Czech: Národní akreditační úřad pro vysoké školství) or another authorised agency. In order to take into account the peculiarities of programmes with a professional orientation, the procedure is slightly modified. For instance, a representative of professional practice has to be included among the experts and within NAB’s board, some members are specifically responsible for these programmes.

 

As the distinction between academic and professional orientation was only introduced in 2016, experiences with this structure are still limited on all sides. Nevertheless, some patterns have already emerged. Many HEIs have had some trouble clearly characterising their programmes’ orientation. This is partly due to the gradual nature of the distinction, but also to the tendency to ascribe a lower quality to professionally oriented programmes, which is running contrary to the intentions of the reform. In some cases, the activities

 

 
 
 

 

9 See https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/czech-republic_en for a broad overview of the Czech education system.

10 Czech Republic, Higher Education Act as of 6 September 2017, Section 44, no. 5b.

11 Czech Republic, Government regulation No. 274/2016 Coll., of 24 August 2016 on standards for accreditation in higher education, Title II.

 

 

of the companies with which the HEI cooperates and which the students can choose for their mandatory internships are not closely related to the respective programme and its learning outcomes. Contractual arrangements with the companies are not always in place or do not ensure a sufficient number of places for the internships. Lastly, the professional experts are sometimes too few and not always involved in the teaching in a convincing manner. Ideally, these should teach practical courses in order to bridge the gap between academic education and the professional world.

 

There are some conclusions to be drawn regarding room for improvement from these mixed results. The purpose of the reform and particularly of the professionally oriented programmes has not been clearly communicated to the wider higher education sector. Therefore, the added value remains somewhat nebulous to HEIs as well as to students. The uneven implementation of the reform and the persisting issues regarding the cooperation between HEIs and professional practice are on the one hand due to the fact that precise standards for the external quality assurance of professionally oriented programmes have not yet been developed. On the other hand, the marked separation between vocational and higher education regarding legislation, institutions, and quality assurance means that time and resources are needed for all parties involved to acquire the needed competences and to bridge institutional and cultural gaps.

 

Latvia

 

In Latvia, there is a clear differentiation between general and vocational education on the one hand and higher education on the other hand regarding legislation, institutions and quality assurance.12 Different sorts of vocational schools are responsible for professional education under the supervision of the State Education Quality Service (Izglītības kvalitātes valsts dienests, IKVD). In contrast, higher education institutions and programmes need to be accredited or licensed by the national quality assurance agency AIKA (Augstākās izglītības kvalitātes aģentūra). This external assessment is done on the basis of the national regulations in the field of higher education, which in turn reflect the ESG.

 

Within the higher education sector, there is a further distinction between general HEIs (augstskola) and colleges (koledža). While the former may offer programmes ranging from EQF levels 5 to 7, the latter are only allowed to provide short-cycle programmes at EQF level 5. These colleges, which have historically developed from vocational education institutions, do not conduct research and focus heavily on practical issues. On a Bachelor and Master level, augstskola offer professional and academic higher education programmes. Apart from the degree, there are other important differences between both types. Professional higher education programmes are supposed to feature a high degree of practical courses, they include a mandatory internship and are subject to specific standards set up by specific bodies. These sectoral expert councils, which consist of representatives of employers, trade unions and government, design additional standards for professional higher education programmes in their respective economic branches. In order to be licensed, every professional study programme has to abide by these standards in addition to the general national regulations.

 

In contrast to the Czech situation, the differentiation between academic and professional degree programmes has long been established in Latvia and thus does not pose significant issues for internal or external quality assurance. HEIs offering professional programmes typically cooperate closely with local companies and have no problems fulfilling the standards regarding practical courses and internships. However, one issue that has been idenfitied lies in the design and regular update of the sectoral standards mentioned above. As they are extremely detailed and the revision process takes very long, they quickly become outdated, diminishing their value as professional standards, particularly in sectors that are rapidly changing. In some cases, this has lead HEIs to prefer offering academic programmes in order to avoid this problem.

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

  1. https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/latvia_en.
 

 

Apart from these established professional programmes, the last years have seen several projects that aim to implement dual education programmes mostly on a vocational, but also on a higher education level. Co- funded by the European Union, they aim at strengthening work-based learning and the cooperation between HEIs and industry to foster innovation.13 These projects are still ongoing and it remains to be seen whether the initiatives can be consolidated and whether sustainable funding can be attained. As in comparable projects, the transition from temporary external to long-term funding by local institutions is a crucial step to be taken in order to achieve permanent results.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

  1. The only project in higher education known to the authors, Skilled Up, is situated in wood processing and intends to establish dual short-cycle programmes in close cooperation between HEIs and companies in this sector. See https://www.skilled-up.eu/.
 

 

 

 

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The current social and political circumstances have influenced the development of policies to favour education seeking to promote the employability of young people. There is a general consensus among the representatives of the participating countries over the fact that work-based learning has strong potential in preparing graduates for more accessible school to work transition, better employment and development of professional identity. All the analysed countries are taking measures to improve the relevance and responsiveness of education and training as well as the education to effective employment transition. The participating countries are fostering cooperation with the labour market, giving great importance to cooperative and work-integrated education at all educational levels.

 

The countries included in the sample are in very different starting positions due to different educational systems and social context. Dual professional education is well established in Slovenia. In Latvia, there is a long tradition of professional higher education programmes, while similar structures have been set up in the Czech Republic. On the other hand, in Montenegro and Ukraine, dual professional education is not systematically integrated in the higher education framework. The policy makers in Montenegro and Ukraine are speeding up policies and reforms for the development of dual professional education in higher education. Very positively, the higher education institutions and quality assurance agencies started to implement Erasmus+ projects such as Strengthening capacities for the implementation of dual education in Montenegro higher education (DUALMON) and Integrating Dual Higher Education in Moldova and Ukraine (COOPERA). The projects support the implementation and adaptation of dual education at different levels.

 

The conclusions of the study show that HEIs are facing challenges, related to the closer cooperation between higher education institutions and employers. In particular, HEIs are challenged with finding appropriate placements for the students, engaging and motivating employers to cooperate and educating mentors of students in the companies. Likewise, the interviews participants pointed out the need to ensure quality practical training, making space for practical training during the regular timetable and acknowledging the time spent on the internship.

 

Regarding the quality assurance system of dual professional education, the participants of the interview from Montenegro and Ukraine stressed the lack of quality assessment mechanisms, regulations of practical training and modernization of all study programs in accordance with needs of the labour market. On a general level the outcomes of the survey suggests the HEIs should gain information on different levels about employers' current and future needs, including information about the desired competencies of students and graduates. The HEIs should also foster involvement of experts from the labour market in the education process.

 

The quality standards in Slovenia related to practical training at HEIs are designed to assess how practical training of students in a work environment is organized and implemented as such. In the evaluation procedure, the experts assess systemic regulation of the practical training of students, its implementation and satisfaction of the participants in the practical training. The interviews participants indicated the need for HEIs to acknowledges practical training/internships for employed students with a clear acknowledgement of different elements of the implemented practice. Specifically, the internship should be recognized only when appropriate in terms of content, complexity, scope, quality, and the study programme. Acknowledgement of the practice should be documented by the institution and must be clear from the documents. This is corroborated by the Czech situation where specific quality standards for the mandatory internships have not yet been established. In some cases, the result is internship places that do not fit the learning outcomes of the respective programme and thus, a lack of coherence.

 

The representatives of the SQAA indicated that sometimes the report of the expert group does not take into account the type of higher education institution or the type and level, as well as the content of study

 

 

programs implemented by the institution. Furthermore, the assessment of the satisfaction of practical training often ends with assessing the satisfaction of students and the feedback of the organisers of practical training, teacher mentors in companies. Likewise, the qualitative analysis of the expert reports showed that in some reports, there is only a partial assessment of satisfaction with the implementation, quality, content, suitability of the practical training.

 

All the participants of the survey identified the need to foster strategic cooperation between key players in higher education and vocational education and training. Similarly, the interviewees pointed out the need to encourage employers to share their knowledge and increase the effectiveness of the dialogue between teachers and employers / in-company mentors. This close cooperation is the key not only to create effective dual education programmes, but also to facilitate the creation of lasting structures. All players involved – HEIs, government and employers – need to see concrete advantages of the dual programmes in order to ensure long-term funding independent of temporary projects. To this end, the effective communication of the project’s objectives and the efficiency of its means to all stakeholders in the wider higher education sector and the business world is of utmost importance.

 

The study showed a strong need to foster innovation and modernisation of education and training systems in identifying and supplying the right set of skills, knowledge and competencies to match the future labour market, innovation and adaptation to new covid affected circumstance. Related to the new COVID reality, there is also a need of introducing new and innovative tools and method to support the professional development of teacher, mentors and student. HEIs should adopt the curricula to reflect the needs of the labour market by updating outdated curricula and supporting the development of job-specific and soft skills needed for the labour market.

 

The internal quality assurance system in dual professional education should include all processes essential for the quality functioning of the HEIs, implementation of study programmes and constant quality improvement. In countries where quality assurance mechanisms of the dual education are not fully developed, the HEIs should plan their quality assurance activities consistently and in detail. They should monitor the implementation of plans on a regular basis. HEIs should adopt a quality procedure manual, which defines the procedures of self-evaluation, the powers and methodology of work, and measures for monitoring and improving the quality of work. In addition. all the relevant stakeholder (quality committee, teacher, strategic councils, employers) should contribute to self-evaluation procedures. The quality assurance agencies should play an important role in supporting HEIs to develop quality cycle and activities to foster the quality of practical training. As has already been mentioned, all quality assurance measures for dual education programmes should be based on specific quality standards that particularly ensure coherence between the theoretical and practical elements and close cooperation between HEIs and employers.

 

ESG standards and guidelines point out that HEIs aim to fulfil multiple purposes, including preparing students for active citizenship and their future careers. The conducted study showed that dual professional education differs across analysed countries due to different historical, political, social and economic context reasons making it impossible for all countries to implement the same model. The study showed the importance of adjusting solutions to country-relative conditions. Furthermore, the study outcomes showed an overall consent of all the participating countries to foster high-quality, practical training, which equips students with the right qualifications and skills needed for the labour market and meaningful participation in society.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Association of Slovene Higher Vocational Colleges – Association HVC (Skupnost višjih strokovnih šol),

Internet: https://www.skupnost-vss.si/en/home-2/

 

Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (2018). The Regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine as of September, 19, 2018, N 660-р »About approving the Concept of dual education for specialists training«. Received from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/660-2018-р#n9.

 

Czech Republic, Government regulation No. 274/2016 Coll., of 24 August 2016 on standards for accreditation in higher education, Internet: https://www.msmt.cz/file/43829_1_2/

 

Czech Republic, Higher Education Act as of 6 September 2017, Internet: https://www.msmt.cz/file/43791_1_2/

 

Dual Education Concept for Ukrainian Educational Institutions, 30 January 2018, Internet: http://fes.kiev.ua/n/cms/25/?L=1&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=372&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=N ews&tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&cHash=e6b6b360b7879ab08eec7ea389981ba8

 

Dual education: concept and current state in Montenegro, 3 April 2018, Internet: https://www.amcham.me/2018/04/dual-education-concept-and-current-state-in-montenegro/

 

Erasmus+ 2021 programme guide, Internet: https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus- plus/resources/programme-guide_en

 

Eurydice, Czech Republic, 21 May 2021, Internet: https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/czech-republic_en

 

Eurydice, Latvia, 21 May 2021, Internet:

https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/latvia_en

Eurydice; Quality Assurance in Higher Education, Montenegro, 14 March 202, Internet. https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/montenegro/quality-assurance-higher- education_en

 

Eurydice, Slovenia, Quality Assurance in Slovenia, 6 April 2021, Internet: https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/quality-assurance-higher-education- 68_en

 

European Framework for Quality and Effective Apprenticeship and the Council Recommondation on VET, 15 May 2018 Internet: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32018H0502(01)&from=NL

 

Government portal, Education and Science reform, Internet: https://www.kmu.gov.ua/en/reformi/rozvitok-lyudskogo-kapitalu/reforma-osviti

 

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ICF International: Stelina Chatzichristou, Daniela Ulicna, Ilona Murphy, Anette Curth, Dual education: A bridge over a troubled water? Published by@European Union, 2014, Internet: poldep- cohesion@europarl.europa.eu

 

 

 

National programme of higher education in Slovenia (Nacionalni program visokega šolstva), 26 Februar

2002, Internet: http://www.pisrs.si/Pis.web/pregledPredpisa?id=NACP33

 

Natalia Kulalaieva, Snizhana Leu, Dual education as a tool for assurance the education of sustainable development, 30 December 2019, Internet: https://ijpint.com/resources/html/article/details?id=196462&language=en

 

Skilled Up Project: Skills for the Baltic Wood industry – European Quality in Vocational Education and Training, Internet: https://www.skilled-up.eu/

 

The National Agency for Higher Education Quality Assurance (NAQA), Internet: https://en.naqa.gov.ua/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Self-Assessment-Report.pdf

 

University Krok, Project Coopera, 14 August 2018, Internet:https://int.krok.edu.ua/en/current- news/item/225-erasmus-grant-winning-of-project-coopera-integrating-dual-higher-education-in- moldova-and-ukraine

 

 

 

 

ANNEX 1: Interview questionnaire

 

Name of the interviewer (organisation)

 

Date

 

Country

 

Name of the interviewee (and company, university, authority etc. they represent)

 

Interview Questions

National Context

 

 

1. Can you please provide us with a description of the national context of (dual) professional education in your country?

Answer:

Recent National reforms

2. Are you aware of recent (in the last 2-3 years) reforms in your country regarding (dual) professional education (HEI or higher VET)? What is the purpose of these reforms and why were they introduced?

Answer:

Internal Assessment

 

3. From your experience in internal assessment of (dual) professional education in your country, what challenges have the education partners encountered?

 

Answer:

External Assessment

4. From your experience in external assessment of (dual) professional education in your country, what challenges have the education partners encountered?

 

Answer:

Applicable standards

 

5. Have you undertaken international review procedures in the (dual) professional education? If yes, which ESG standards have been mostly applicable in the external assessment? Have you applied standards/criteria other than the ESG?

 

Answer:

 

 

6. Have you identified conflicting parts with national standards and in which cases? Answer:

Improvements

 

7. What possibilities for improvement with regards to internal and external assessment of (dual) professional education do you see?

 

Answer:

8. Please provide any other question or feedback you consider relevant.

 

Answer:

 

IQAA - Qualitative report on internal and external assessment mechanisms at the Kazakh educational organizations

 

This report has been developed based on the interviews conducted on 13 May with two focus groups. Each focus group consisted of 4 representatives of diverse colleges and universities in Kazakhstan that implement the dual professional education. Each interview lasted about an hour.

Some abbreviations have been developed: UR – University Representative, CR – College Representative.

 

National Context

The implementation of dual professional education in Kazakhstani educational organizations has started at different time. The earliest date of the start of the program among the educational organizations that participated in the interview was 2012 in one of the colleges. The fields of program realization within the framework of dual professional education depend on the type or direction of the educational organization. For instance, pedagogical universities implement dual education within the framework of educational programs such as primary education, special pedagogy, and preschool education; technical colleges/universities – energy and electronics, mechanical engineering, and agronomy; multidisciplinary college/university – mechanical engineering, IT entrepreneurship and digital economy.

All representatives of the educational organizations stated that they are planning to increase the number of educational programs that may be applicable to the dual professional education. However, it is important to highlight that not all educational programs can be implemented within the framework of the dual professional education. For example, representatives stated:

 

UR: It is difficult to talk about full dual education in terms pedagogical specialties. Only elements of dual education may be implemented. We have practice. From the 1st year students undergo practical training. However, I cannot say that it is a dual education. Only the introduction of some elements.

 

CR: The implementation of the dual education depends on the specialties. Not all specialties can be in the enterprises due to the specifics of those particular enterprises or the specialty itself.

 

According to the answers of the interviewees, it was clear that educational organizations face certain difficulties in implementing the dual education. Since one of the significant requirements in the implementation of dual education is a student training in factories, enterprises, or other applicable organizations, it is crucial for educational organizations to have enough support and interest from the side of

 

employers or industry. However, the Rs of both universities and colleges stated that it is hard for them to sign contracts with employers:

 

UR: But it seems to me that here we have small inconsistencies with enterprises. They do not always want to sign a contract.

 

CR: Employers do not want, cannot and are afraid to take responsibility for students, underage students for a long time… Small and medium-sized enterprises do not even want to hire students for long-term internships.

 

Recent National Reforms

The answers of the interviewees illustrate that the dual education is not entrenched at the legislative level. Almost no representatives of both universities and colleges could provide comprehensive answers to the questions on the national reforms regarding the dual education. Only one of the college representatives answered:

 

CR: Some time ago, we worked on the 50th Order. Now, unfortunately, I do not remember the orders. But I know for sure that there were changes.

 

One of the university representatives stated:

 

UR: The law of academic and managerial independence of universities, which was adopted in 2018 completely changed the educational process. Thanks to this, we can apply dual education, change disciplines.

 

Moreover, the interviewees claimed that national legislation does not cover sufficiently the area of dual professional education. One of the significant problems that interviewees stated was the lack of legislative framework for conducting dual professional education on the part of enterprises:

 

CR: There are some directions for dual education, but for enterprises, there is no legislative basis as such. Therefore, enterprises do not always want to cooperate. How are we going to implement dual education if there are not enterprises?

 

The lack of a single law on dual education leads educational organizations to implement it on their own understanding:

 

UR: In the State Educational Standard of Education 2016, only one line - “for dual education, disciplines should be no more than 40%”- is dedicated to the dual education. Each university understands dual education in its own way.

 

Moreover, students’ rights and obligations in enterprises are not regulated in the legislative acts. Therefore, students might complete the activities that are not related to their studies or specialty.

 

UR: We find out that when we send our interns (students) to enterprises, they do not always perform the functions that we expect. They are mainly used for low-skilled jobs, especially in the field of industry or manufacture.

 

Internal Assessment

According to answers of the representatives, it was clear to observe that educational institutions do not apply any internal assessment mechanisms concerning dual education programmes. The representatives stated that although they implement dual education programmes, there are not any internal mechanisms that can assess them. Nevertheless, they understand the need to develop such a mechanism:

 

UR: It is important for universities to be able to develop regulations and indicators that would allow them to assess their own resources for the implementation of dual education.

 

Regarding the challenges that organizations have encountered or expect to encounter, interviewees stated that common issues for all educational organizations are the lack of enterprises, insufficient number of students who study within the framework of dual professional education, and the lack of mentors for students. These problems cannot be solved without any helps. For instance, a college representative said:

 

Last year, when we wanted to expand the groups of dual education in the electric power profile, we did not succeed simply because the enterprises did not sign contracts since they are afraid to take responsibility for the students. Enterprises need to appoint a mentor for each student, because electricity is dangerous for the lives of students. Moreover, they do not have enough staff to appoint for each student.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has also influenced the educational organizations’ work and implementation of dual education. Students had to have online internships and did not have an opportunity to gain experience in the enterprises.

 

Applicable Standards

Most of the colleges and universities have undergone international accreditation of the agencies such as IQAA, ACQUIN, ASIIN. The respondents

 

stated that any problems did not occur regarding the ESG standards. One interviewee said:

UR: Since ESG standards are adopted to the national context, we have not met any challenges.

 

Recommendations

According to the participants’ recommendations, three areas for improvement can be highlighted.

 

    1. The relevant legislation on dual professional education at the state level

The participants stated that there are not sufficient legislative documents that may explain what is dual professional education in a Kazakhstani context. Each educational organization understands dual professional education on its own.

 

UR: If the term “dual professional education” was introduced into legislative documents, then the ratios that are used in all countries would be defined accordingly. Based on this, accreditation standards should have been revised. UR: It would be better to have standards for dual education with concise criteria and indicators.

 

Besides the Ministry of education and science, other stakeholders such as The National Chamber of Entrepreneurs of the Republic of Kazakhstan “Atameken” and local authorities should also take active participation in the realization of dual professional education. In this term, there should be a legislation that encourages enterprises to cooperate with educational organizations.

 

CR: Coordination work should be among the Ministry of Labor, the Ministry of Education and the local executive body. Various enterprises need to be motivated so that they cooperate with us, and so that they have some kind of benefit.

 

CR: The Minister of Education signs all documents concerning dual education. I believe that other relevant ministries must also participate in this project. Enterprises usually refuse to cooperate with us since their ministries are not engaged in this project.

 

Moreover, a separate legislation is recommended to be developed considering the period of cooperation between an educational organization and an enterprise. Some foreign enterprises agree with accepting students for internship only for obtaining a loan of the World Bank:

 

CR: One enterprise came to us with the aim of obtaining a loan from the World Bank, we made 10 educational programmes for them within the framework of dual education. However, after they receiving a loan, they refused to take our students. This must be regulated, conditions must be set for them to work with us for at least 2 years.

 

Finally, it was also suggested to develop a separate regulation on student age who may or may not attend the enterprises. According to interviewees’ responses, not all students are allowed to work in enterprises due to students’ age difference:

 

CR: Our main enterprises refer to the legislation and refuse to accept students under the age of 18, since it is dangerous for students to work in enterprises. Without on-site training, dual education cannot be accepted as dual education.

 

    1. Defining the key stakeholders

Another recommendation to consider is to determine the key stakeholders of the dual education. In order to implement dual education it is crucial to be aware of applicability of the educational programs in the labour market. The lack of concrete indicators for choosing particular educational programs to apply to dual professional education cause certain difficulties in designing program curriculum and cooperating with enterprises. In this term, a lot questions appear from the side of educational actors that need to be answered:

 

UR: Why is this program being developed? Whom is it requested? Who is the consumer of this program?

 

Therefore, it was suggested to develop a list of educational programs that need to be implemented within the framework of dual professional education. Moreover, it is important to consider the specific features of the educational programs since not all programs may be applied to dual professional education. For example, the participants stated:

 

UR: It is difficult to talk about dual education in pedagogical specialties. There can be some elements of dual education…

 

CR: The implementation of the dual education mostly depends on educational programs. Not all specialties can be taught in enterprises due to the specifics of enterprises or the specialty itself.

 

    1. Financial support
 

In addition to the aforementioned suggestions, the representatives of both universities and colleges stated that there should be an inducement system for enterprises to cooperate with educational organizations. For instance, the payment system for mentors of enterprises:

 

UR: The issue of the need to pay the mentors at enterprises for work with trainees has not been solved yet.

 

CR: The payment system for mentors at enterprises would help since they have their own responsibilities at work places.

 

Moreover, one of the university representatives stated that students must have labor books at enterprises and get salaries for their job. The labor books record students’ job experience that would be helpful while getting employed after graduation from an educational organization.

 

UR: I think that students should have labour books. Students must get salary. Their job experience at the enterprises must be considered…

 

Interesting Finding

The responses of the university and college representatives illustrate that, in general, educational organizations face the same problems in implementing the dual professional education. However, discrepancies in their understandings on challenges they encounter in implementing the dual education occur.

 

UR: For colleges, certain points on dual professional education have been addressed.

 

UR: Colleges have comparatively more organizations and enterprises to send their students within the dual professional education…

 

This might mean that universities and colleges do not collaborate with each other enough in order to be aware of the challenges they face. Therefore, cooperative work that contribute exchanging positive practices and improving the implementation of dual professional education needs to be organized.

 

Conclusion

In conclusion, the results of the research show that the implementation of dual professional education has started at different time. The fields of dual professional education depend on the type of the educational organization. The educational organizations face certain challenges in the implementation of the dual professional education, particularly with the enterprises. Enterprises or various organizations,

 

where students may have their trainings or internships, do not always support and cooperate with educational organizations.

Regarding the national legislations that envisage the implementation of the dual professional education, the representatives of both colleges and universities stated that there are not concrete regulations that define what dual professional education is in fact. Some state acts on education may contain brief information on dual professional education; however, they may not serve as a base for the successful implementation of the dual professional education.

Moreover, the participants stated that they do not have internal mechanisms that assess the quality of dual professional education. The majority of the educational organizations have undergone international accreditation of their educational programs. However, they could not observe any discrepancies between national and international standards. The possible explanation for this could be the adaptation of ESG standards to the national context.

According to the recommendations of the representatives on improving the implementation of the dual professional education, three different areas have been developed. The first area considers the legislative documents on defining the dual professional education, the second one suggests determining the key stakeholders while the third area refers to the financial support.

Finally, the organization of the collaborative work between universities and colleges on successful implementation of the dual professional education has been suggested. Such kind of cooperation contributes exchanging best practices and solving certain difficulties.

The European Union —EU
The European Union —EU
Kassym-Jomart K. Tokayev
The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Republic of Kazakhstan
The Republic of Kazakhstan is a unitary state with the presidential system of government.
+7 (707) 350-55-30
Almaty
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